What is IDRA-21?
IDRA-21 is an ampakine drug derived from benzothiadiazine and a positive allosteric modulator of glutamate AMPA receptors. It increases excitatory synaptic strength by attenuating rapid desensitization of AMPA receptors and may thus have beneficial therapeutic effects to ameliorate memory deficits in patients with cognitive impairments, including AD .
How does IDRA-21 work?
IDRA-21, like other nootropics, presumably has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. A natural protection to the brain to allow only certain levels of nutrient delivered to the brain. As the nature of nootropics lies within bypassing higher levels of nutrients to the brain, usually in higher concentration, IDRA-21 is a commonly used to enhance learning and memory, improve overall performance with a long lasting effect of up to 48 hours. It was found to be around 10–30 times more potent than aniracetam in reversing cognitive deficits induced by alprazolam or scopolamine .
Effects of IDRA-21
IDRA-21 has proven to increase synaptic strength by attenuating rapid desensitization of AMPA receptors. This property enhances long-term potentiation, especially within the hippocampus and may thus have beneficial therapeutic effects . This research could imply that IDRA-21 facilitates treatment of AMPA-related learning disabilities or enhancing intelligence in those without any learning disabilities.
In animal studies, IDRA-21 showed extremely long-lasting nootropic effects in improved learning and memory for up to 48 hours with a single dose. IDRA-21 showed to be up to ten times more powerful than the similar supplement aniracetam.
Studies on IDRA-21
Most studies on IDRA-21 focus on its main strength, acting on a stereoselective site of AMPA . The efficacy is mostly tested on laboratory rats that must pass a water maze. The tests showed that rats treated with IDRA-21 were significantly performing better in reaching the maze exit. The effects of huperzine A and IDRA 21 on visual recognition memory in young macaques was tested for its efficacy.
Recommended Dosage / Usage Instructions
Recommendations vary, however most sources suggest up to 10mg within 48 hours. Since IDRA-21 is water soluble there is no need in administering along a meal, but a glass of water. Further, due to IDRA-21 long lasting effects, it is advisable, when unsure about the dosage, to start with low dosage and gradually increase dosage until the personal optimum is found.
Side-Effects of IDRA-21
Although clinical evidence on side-effects is scarce, researchers concluded that IDRA-21 has relatively low neurotoxicity when take in therapeutic doses .
Since little is known on effects after stacking IDRA-21 with other supplements of racetam family like Aniracetam, great caution needs to be taken
 - Chloro-3-methyl-3-4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4 benzothiadiazine S,S-dioxide (IDRA 21): a benzothiadiazine derivative that enhances cognition by attenuating DL-alpha-amino-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-4-isoxazolepropanoic acid (AMPA) receptor desensitization. - http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/272/1/300.short
 - 7-Chloro-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine S,S-dioxide (IDRA 21), a congener of aniracetam, potently abates pharmacologically induced cognitive impairments in patas monkeys - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC41206
 - 7-Chloro-3-methyl-3-4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4 benzothiadiazine S,S-dioxide (IDRA 21): a benzothiadiazine derivative that enhances cognition by attenuating DL-alpha-amino-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-oxo-4-isoxazolepropanoic acid (AMPA) receptor desensitization - http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/272/1/300.abstract
 - 7-Chloro-3-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine S,S-dioxide: a partial modulator of AMPA receptor desensitization devoid of neurotoxicity. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9192690