What is Sunifiram?
Sunifiram – also known as DM232 – is an extremely potent nootropic which is around 1000 times stronger than the prototypical smart drug piracetam. Although Sunifiram a Piracetam analogue, its chemical structure does not contain a pyrrolidinone ring and therefore it is not strictly speaking a member of the racetam family. Although Sunifiram is a relatively new nootropic, initial research is promising and suggests that it is a stimulatory nootropic with anti-amnesiac and cognitive enhancing properties. It has also been shown to be virtually non-toxic.
Anecdotal reports on Sunifiram also suggest that it also has mood-enhancing properties, and users report enhanced colour perception, improved motivation, learning, and alertness. Most of these properties are consistent with Sunifiram’s status as an ampakine drug.
One of the most exciting aspects of Sunifiram is that it is one of the only nootropics which has been shown to promote long term potentiation (LTP), which is the process of improving the communication between neurons in the brain and is considered to be the major way in which learning and memory actually occur in the brain.
Effects of Sunifiram
Sunifiram - like oxiracetam, aniracetam, and pramiracetam – stimulates the release of the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which in turn can lead to improved memory and learning. However, Sunifiram also modulates the AMPA receptor (see below) and stimulates glutamate production, which is believed to result in improved cognition.
As an ampakine, Sunifiram exhibits many of the effects associated with these “good arousal” drugs. Ampakines are family of compounds which modulate the AMPA receptor and which, by improving the signal speed and transmission across synapses, have a stimulant effect and can increase focus, alertness, memory, learning, and attention span. Unlike most stimulants however, ampakines do not have the negative side effects such as sleep disruption, addiction, and come-downs associated with traditional stimulants such as amphetamines.
The effects of Sunifiram are often compared with that of Nefiracetam as they share similar mechanisms of action. However it should be noted that Sunifiram’s unique chemical structure and status as an ampakine mean that it is likely to have a wide range of stimulatory and cognitive effects – something which appears to be backed up from user feedback.
Some anecdotal reports even attribute an increased sex drive to supplementing Sunifram. Probably due to stimulatory effects and the resulting general feeling of well-being and self-esteem.
How Sunifiram Works
Several mechanisms of action have been put forward for Sunifiram:
Sunifiram modulates the AMPA receptor and improves signal transmission and speed across synapses. It is thought that this mechanism of action primarily contributes to the drug’s stimulatory properties; however this may also support improved cognitive performance.
By modulating the AMPA receptor Sunifiram may also increase the glutamate levels in the brain. The neurotransmitter glutamate regulates brain metabolism, and low levels are associated with poor cognitive performance, low attention and, and poor memory. By raising glutamate levels it is thought that Sunifiram can lead to improved cognition.
Sunifiram is a cholinergenic (stimulates the production of acetylcholine). Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter, and raised levels of acetylcholine have a number of positive effects including: improved perception, alertness, memory, focus, and learning. Higher levels of acetylcholine also improve communication between the left and right hemispheres of the brain which has been shown to improve problem solving skills and social skills.
Studies on Sunifiram
As a relatively new nootropic, research into Sunifiram’s effects is ongoing. Nonetheless, one study has shown that Sunifiram has cognitive enhancing and anti-amnesiac properties significantly higher than that of piracetam, and that it promotes acetylcholine release (citation 1). Studies have also shown Sunifiram’s effect on Long Term Potentiation (citations 2 & 3).
Recommended Dosage / Usage Instructions
The recommended dosage for Sunifiram is between 5 and 10mg per day. The stimulatory effect of Sunifiram is purported to be exhibited at dosages of around 10mg.
Sunifiram is water soluble and therefore does not need to be taken with a meal.
Side-Effects of Sunifiram
Currently no known toxicity associated with Sunifiram and therefore considered safe. Some rare anecdotal reports include mild side effects such as wakefulness at night or anxiousness.
Molecular simplification of 1,4-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-9-ones gives piperazine derivatives that maintain high nootropic activity - http http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11087574
Novel nootropic drug sunifiram improves cognitive deficits via CaM kinase II and protein kinase C activation in olfactory bulbectomized mice. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23295391
Novel nootropic drug sunifiram enhances hippocampal synaptic efficacy via glycine-binding site of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23733502