What is Nefiracetam?
Nefiracetam is a relatively less-known nootropic of the racetam family, which is derived from piracetam. Its molecular structure (and thus properties) look similar to aniracetam, but nefiracetam is considered more potent than the two stated racetams. Nefiracetam was initially introduced as a useful supplement for dementia patients, but soon after its introduction, it was also recognized as a nootropic drug providing excellent benefits to cognitive functions.
How does Nefiracetam work?
There are two reported pathways for mechanism of action by administration of nefiracetam. The first one is the prolonged opening of calcium channels which elevates the brain stimulation. This improves the memory formation as well as extends the neuro-communication among different sites within the brain. The second pathway is to increase production of certain neuro-transmitters (like GABA, Glutamate etc.) within brain which results in relief from depression, anxiety and mental stress as well as facilitates the neuro-transmission.
Nefiracetam is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, a built-in guard mechanism to inhibit entrance of toxic or higher doses of chemicals to the brain via the blood stream. It has been shown that nefiracetam is effective after a regular use for few days, whereas a single fraction results in no effect literally.
Effects of Nefiracetam
The supplement is shown to be used for a number of benefits including treatments for dementia, seizures, depression etc. as well as neuro-protection and cognition enhancement.
Although not many studies can confirm, Nefiracetam is able to increase memory formation when taken daily over a prolonged period of time. It is known to open calcium channels which prolongs its presence in the activated neuron before increasing signaling of acetylcholine and glutamate at the synapse. This ability gives Nefiracetam nootropic value.
Nefiracetam has been studied on animals as well to understand its interactions with hormones. It was found about one week after Nefiracetam was given to beagle dogs, that it was able to reduce serum testosterone while increasing circulating estrogen serum concentrations,
Studies on Nefiracetam
Limited studies on humans exist, but animal studies are carried out for a number of diseases. In some of studies, nefiracetam is shown to possess anti-amnestic properties, preventing a partial or total memory loss. Few other studies have termed it as anti-convulsion drug based on experiments revealing its benefits in the patients with epilepsy, dementia, Alzheimer disorder etc. The most famous term assigned to nefiracetam is anti-dementia. Some studies also exist on the anti-depressant/anti-apathy effects of nefiracetam. Overall, it has been shown to possess neuro-protective, anti-depressant and cognitive effects for animals as well as humans.
Recommended Dosage / Usage Instructions
Recommendations vary, however most sources suggest between 150mg and 450mg per day. Preferably spread across morning, midday and evening. To find your personal optimum it is advised to start with low doses and gradually increase dose until a personal optimum is reached.
Nefiracetam fat-soluble and it is therefore recommended to be taken along with fatty acids (foods containing fat).
Side-Effects of Nefiracetam
Till now, no toxicity is reported for humans, and nefiracetam is considered safe up to an optimum dosage, varying by each individual. The common side effects are similar to those exhibited by all racetams, such as headache, nausea, dizziness, stomach distress etc. Headaches can be protected against having a choline-rich diets. All side-effects are more prone to occur when ingesting higher doses.
Nefiracetam does not go well with Glycine and other NDMA glycine binding ligands.
 - Testicular toxicity induced in dogs by nefiracetam, a neutrotransmission enhancer - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15082078