What is Phenylpiracetam
Phenylpiracetam – also known as Phenotropil and Carphedon - is a powerful nootropic which was originally developed in Russia in 1983. It is considered to be a stimulatory nootropic which improves physical stamina, and as a result it is popular among students, fitness enthusiasts, and athletes. Phenylpiracetam is derived from the prototypical racetam piracetam; however the addition of a phenyl (benzene) ring makes Phenylpiracetam 30 to 60 times more potent than piracetam, partly due to its enhanced bioavailability. Due to its psycho-stimulatory and cold resistance properties it is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency and therefore its use in international sport is prohibited.
Phenylpiracetam was largely ignored outside of Russia until 2008 when it was reported that the Russian athlete Roman Usov pulled out of the Beijing Olympics after testing positive for Phenylpiracetam. Since then Phenylpiracetam has received widespread attention – particularly in the nootropic community – and its wide variety of positive effects are becoming better understood.
Effects of Phenylpiracetam
Many of the positive effects of Phenylpiracetam are linked to its ampakine properties. Ampakines are a group of compounds characterised by the way that they modulate the AMPA receptor. They have stimulatory properties and increase focus, attention span, alertness, memory, and learning. Also known as eugeroics, ampakines are a class of “good arousal” drugs which have the positive effects of a stimulant without the negative effects of addiction, dependence, come-downs, and sleep disruption which are associated with traditional stimulants such as amphetamines. Phenylpiracetam is one of the few effective ampakines in the world which is commercially available.
Phenylpiracetam is also widely considered to have neuroprotective properties, with one study suggesting that it reduces the rate of cognitive decline. Other studies have revealed that Phenylpiracetam reduces anxiety and depression, which is consistent with widespread anecdotal reports that it has a mood elevating effect.
Phenylpiracetam and also has a number of physical effects which make it popular with fitness enthusiasts and athletes. For example, Phenylpiracetam is reported to increase the pain tolerance threshold, reduce the effect of extreme cold on the body, increase stamina, and improve recovery times.
Various anecdotal reports on the stimulatory effect of Phenylpiracetam are consistent with its ampakine properties – for example it is described as stimulating motivation and energy without causing anxiety, or as one user puts it: “caffeine without the rush or the comedown”.
Who Uses Phenylpiracetam
The properties of Phenylpiracetam make it the nootropic of choice for a wide spectrum of people:
|Students:||Many students find the stimulant and nootropic properties a great combination as it helps with those long study sessions. Phenylpiracetam also stacks well with other nootropics, making it a great component in a revision or cramming stack.|
|Business people & professionals:||The anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) properties of Phenylpiracetam make it a great nootropic for people who work in high pressured environments.|
|Fitness enthusiasts & athletes:||The fact that Phenylpiracetam is a banned substance in international athletics underlines just how effective this product is. The stimulatory and energy boosting properties of Phenylpiracetam are clearly extremely compelling.|
How Phenylpiracetam Works?
It has been suggested that Phenylpiracetam acts as a neuromodulator, as studies show that it affects important neurotransmitters and receptor sites in the brain. More specifically it increases the density of acetycholine, GABA-a, NDMA glutamate, and dopamine receptors. Studies have also shown that Phenylpiracetam stimulates dopamine and noradrenaline levels in the brain, which when combined with the upregulation of dopamine synapses, may explain Phenylpiracetam’s stimulatory and psycho-stimulatory properties.
Phenylpiracetam has high oral bioavailability and is active within 1 hour of ingestion. It is excreted through urine (~60%) and bile (~40%).
Studies on Phenylpiracetam
Although the vast majority of research into Phenylpiracetam was conducted in Russia and is not freely available, there are several studies have been published in English which have examined Phenylpiracetam’s properties in detail.
Three studies (citations 1-3) examined the effect Phenylpiracetam had on cognition. These studies looked at people suffering from brain disorders, and all showed improvements in cognitive performance across many different parameters. Another study (citation 4) looked at Phenylpiracetam’s affect on cognitive decline, and showed a reduction in cognitive decline as well as reduced anxiety and reduced depression. Other studies have also showed improved problem solving skills (citation 4).
The recommended dosage for Phenylpiracetam is between 200 and 600mg per day. We advise taking Phenylpiracetam 2 to 3 times per day as it has a half life of between 2.5 and 3 hours.
Phenylpiracetam is water soluble and therefore does not need to be taken with a meal.
Phenylpiracetam and Piracetam - Differences
Phenylpiracetam is chemically similar to piracetam, however the addition of a benzene ring means that Phenylpiracetam has additional and different properties to piracetam. Unlike piracetam, Phenylpiracetam has psycho-stimulatory properties and is effective at much lower dosages. Phenylpiracetam’s chemical structure makes it 30 – 60 times more potent than piracetam. The half life of Phenylpiracetam also appears to be lower than that of piracetam (2.5-3 hours compared with 5 hours).
1. Efficacy of phenotropil in the rehabilitation of stroke patients [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21626817]
2. Phenotropil in the treatment of vascular encephalopathy [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16608112]
3. The efficacy of phenotropil in the complex treatment of epilepsy [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18646385]
4. The phenotropil treatment of the consequences of brain organic lesions [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16447562]
5. Use of phenotropil in the treatment of asthenic syndrome and autonomic disturbances in the acute period of mild cranial brain trauma [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18689001]